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Enqueueing jobs is delayed execution of function calls. This means we’re solving a problem, but are getting back a few in return.

Dealing with Results

Python functions may have return values, so jobs can have them, too. If a job returns a non-None return value, the worker will write that return value back to the job’s Redis hash under the result key. The job’s Redis hash itself will expire after 500 seconds by default after the job is finished.

The party that enqueued the job gets back a Job instance as a result of the enqueueing itself. Such a Job object is a proxy object that is tied to the job’s ID, to be able to poll for results.

Return Value TTL

Return values are written back to Redis with a limited lifetime (via a Redis expiring key), which is merely to avoid ever-growing Redis databases.

The TTL value of the job result can be specified using the result_ttl keyword argument to enqueue() and enqueue_call() calls. It can also be used to disable the expiry altogether. You then are responsible for cleaning up jobs yourself, though, so be careful to use that.

You can do the following:

q.enqueue(foo)  # result expires after 500 secs (the default)
q.enqueue(foo, result_ttl=86400)  # result expires after 1 day
q.enqueue(foo, result_ttl=0)  # result gets deleted immediately
q.enqueue(foo, result_ttl=-1)  # result never expires--you should delete jobs manually

Additionally, you can use this for keeping around finished jobs without return values, which would be deleted immediately by default.

q.enqueue(func_without_rv, result_ttl=500)  # job kept explicitly

Dealing with Exceptions

Jobs can fail and throw exceptions. This is a fact of life. RQ deals with this in the following way.

Furthermore, it should be possible to retry failed jobs. Typically, this is something that needs manual interpretation, since there is no automatic or reliable way of letting RQ judge whether it is safe for certain tasks to be retried or not.

When an exception is thrown inside a job, it is caught by the worker, serialized and stored under the job’s Redis hash’s exc_info key. A reference to the job is put in the FailedJobRegistry. By default, failed jobs will be kept for 1 year.

The job itself has some useful properties that can be used to aid inspection:

This makes it possible to inspect and interpret the problem manually and possibly resubmit the job.

Dealing with Interruptions

When workers get killed in the polite way (Ctrl+C or kill), RQ tries hard not to lose any work. The current work is finished after which the worker will stop further processing of jobs. This ensures that jobs always get a fair chance to finish themselves.

However, workers can be killed forcefully by kill -9, which will not give the workers a chance to finish the job gracefully or to put the job on the failed queue. Therefore, killing a worker forcefully could potentially lead to damage. Just sayin’.

If the worker gets killed while a job is running, it will eventually end up in FailedJobRegistry because a cleanup task will raise an AbandonedJobError. Before 0.14 the behavor was the same, but the cleanup task raised a Moved to FailedJobRegistry at error message instead.

Dealing with Job Timeouts

By default, jobs should execute within 180 seconds. After that, the worker kills the work horse and puts the job onto the failed queue, indicating the job timed out.

If a job requires more (or less) time to complete, the default timeout period can be loosened (or tightened), by specifying it as a keyword argument to the enqueue() call, like so:

q = Queue()
q.enqueue(mytask, args=(foo,), kwargs={'bar': qux}, job_timeout=600)  # 10 mins

You can also change the default timeout for jobs that are enqueued via specific queue instances at once, which can be useful for patterns like this:

# High prio jobs should end in 8 secs, while low prio
# work may take up to 10 mins
high = Queue('high', default_timeout=8)  # 8 secs
low = Queue('low', default_timeout=600)  # 10 mins

# Individual jobs can still override these defaults
low.enqueue(really_really_slow, job_timeout=3600)  # 1 hr

Individual jobs can still specify an alternative timeout, as workers will respect these.

Job Results

New in version 1.12.0.

If a job is executed multiple times, you can access its execution history by calling job.results(). RQ will store up to 10 latest execution results.

Calling job.latest_result() will return the latest Result object, which has the following attributes:

job = Job.fetch(id='my_id', connection=redis)
result = job.latest_result()  #  returns Result(id=uid, type=SUCCESSFUL)
if result == result.Type.SUCCESSFUL: 

Alternatively, you can also use job.return_value() as a shortcut to accessing the return value of the latest result. Note that job.return_value will only return a not-None object if the latest result is a successful execution.

job = Job.fetch(id='my_id', connection=redis)
print(job.return_value())  # Shortcut for job.latest_result().return_value

To access multiple results, use job.results().

job = Job.fetch(id='my_id', connection=redis)
for result in job.results(): 
    print(result.created_at, result.type)

New in version 1.16.0. To block until a result arrives, you can pass a timeout in seconds to job.latest_result(). If any results already exist, the latest result is returned immediately. If the timeout is reached without a result arriving, a None object is returned.

job = queue.enqueue(sleep_for_10_seconds)
result = job.latest_result(timeout=60)  # Will hang for about 10 seconds.